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Monsanto's Dark History | 10 Facts You Should Know About Monsanto

GMO Food Research | Eli Lilly's rBST/rBGH Pus Milk | Pfizer's Aspartame
Documentary Movies About Monsanto | Books About Monsanto

Table of Contents

  1. Monsanto Videos
  2. Top 10 Facts About Monsanto
  3. Documentary Movies
  4. Company Information
    1. Monsanto Headquarters
    2. Board of Directors
    3. Key Officers & Executives
    4. Monsanto UK Ltd.
    5. Monsanto UK Directors
    6. Key Monsanto Employees
  5. Commercialization
  6. Current Monsanto Crops
  7. GMO Field Trials
    1. UK Field Trials
    2. EU Field Trials
    3. EU Marketing Consents
    4. European Field Trials
  8. Future GMO Crops
    1. Wheat
  9. Commercialized GMO Crops
    1. Sugar Beets
    2. Fodder Beets
    3. Monsanto GMO Crops
    4. Canola
  10. Seed Companies
    1. PBIC
  11. Dependance on GMOs
    1. Global Strategy
    2. Monsanto in EU & UK
  12. More Monsanto Products
    1. DDT Pesticide
    2. Fake Vanilla
    3. Fake Grass
  13. History of Monsanto
  14. Monsanto Resources
  15. Monsanto Books

Related Resources

"Monsanto should NOT have to vouchsafe the safety of biotech food. Our interest is in selling as much of it as possible. Assuring its safety is the FDA's job" — Phil Angell, Monsanto's director of corporate communications. "Playing God in the Garden" New York Times Magazine, October 25, 1998

Top 10 Facts About Monsanto

  1. No GMO Labeling Laws in the USA!
  2. Lack of Adequate FDA / USDA Safety Testing
  3. Monsanto Puts Small Farmers out of Business
    Farmer Suicides After GMO Crop Failures
  4. Monsanto Products Pollute the Developing World
    500,000 Agent Orange Babies
  5. Monsanto Blocking Government Regulations
  6. Monsanto Guilty of False Advertising & Scientific FRAUD
  7. Consumers Reject Bovine Growth Hormone rBGH in Milk
  8. GMO Crops Do NOT Increase Yields
  9. Monsanto Controls U.S. Soy Market
  10. Monsanto's GMO Foods Cause NEW Food Allergies

Monsanto is one of the top 10 US chemical companies. Monsanto's deadly legacy includes the production of herbicides 2,4,5-T, RoundUp, Agent Orange used primarily during the Vietnam War as a defoliant agent (later proven to be highly carcinogenic to any who come into contact with the solution), DDT (banned), PCBs, Dioxin, the artificial sweetener Aspartame (NutraSweet), bovine somatotropin rBST / rBGH pus milk (Posilac shots) - not to mention most of your corn (maize), soybeans, canola (rapeseed), alfalfa, cottonseed oil, the banned sugarbeets, sunflower oil (sold to Syngenta), and coming soon: WHEAT!

"What you are seeing is not just a consolidation of seed companies, its really a consolidation of the entire food chain" - Robert Fraley, co-president of Monsanto's agricultural sector 1996, in the Farm Journal. Quoted in: Flint J. (1998) Agricultural industry giants moving towards genetic monopolism. Telepolis, Heise.

Monsanto was founded by John Francis Queeny with $5000 and Coca-Cola funding. Monsanto's first product was the artificial sweetener saccharin, which it sold to the Coca-Cola Company. Monsanto also introduced aspartame, caffeine, and vanillin to Coca-Cola - and became one of Coca-Cola's main CHEMICAL suppliers.

Monsanto products being FDA approved by former Monsanto employees, is commonly referred to as the "revolving doors" of Washington DC. When FOX News reporters in Florida tried to tell us the Truth about Monsanto's "pus milk", Monsanto's RoundUp TELEVI$ION AD CAMPAIGN decided what the Truth was; the Supreme Court of Florida ruled that it is LEGAL for Fox News to lie on TV.

Bookmark the RSS News Feed to get updates when new sources are available. Follow us on Facebook & Twitter!

Monsanto Biohazards Pollute our Earth

RoundUp Ready Seeds
agent orange Genuity


Top 10 Facts About Monsanto

  1. No GMO Labeling Laws in the USA!
  2. Lack of Adequate FDA / USDA Safety Testing
  3. Monsanto Puts Small Farmers out of Business
    Farmer Suicides After GMO Crop Failures
  4. Monsanto Products Pollute the Developing World
    500,000 Agent Orange Babies
  5. Monsanto Blocking Government Regulations
  6. Monsanto Guilty of False Advertising & Scientific FRAUD
  7. Consumers Reject Bovine Growth Hormone rBGH in Milk
  8. GMO Crops Do NOT Increase Yields
  9. Monsanto Controls U.S. Soy Market
  10. Monsanto's GMO Foods Cause NEW Food Allergies

Some GMO foods have been proven in laboratory tests to...
CAUSE: cancer, sterility, miscarriages, seizures and even death!

MON stock crash

Documentary Movies About Monsanto

Food Inc. Documentary The World According to Monsanto The Future of Food
Seeds of Deception Sweet Misery A Poisoned World Seeds of Destruction

Seeds of Deception
By Jeffrey M. Smith


Monsanto Chemical Co. World Headquarters
800 North Lindbergh Boulevard
St. Louis, Missouri 63167 U.S.A.

Telephone: (314) 694-1000
Fax: (314) 694-6572

Statistics: Public Company
Incorporated: 1933 as Monsanto Chemical Company
Employees: 21,900
Sales: $8.64 billion (1998)
Stock Exchanges: New York, Amsterdam, Brussels, Chicago
Ticker Symbol: MTC
NAIC: 325412 Pharmaceutical Preparations; 325311 Medicinal & Botanical Manufacturing

Principal Subsidiaries: Calgene Inc. (leader in plant biotech); Asgrow Seed Co.; DEKALB Genetics Corp. (second-largest seed/corn company in the United States); DEKALB Swine Breeders Inc.; Nutrasweet Co. (aspartame); Monsanto Agricultural Co.; G. D. Searle & Co.


Monsanto Board of Directors:

  • Frank V. AtLee III - Chairman of the Board of Monsanto
  • Hugh Grant - President and Chief Executive Officer (CEO)
  • Gwendolyn S. King - President, Podium Prose.
  • Sharon R. Long, Ph. D. - Professor of Biological Sciences and Dean of the School of Humanities and Sciences, Stanford University
  • C. Steven McMillan - President and CEO of Sara Lee Corp.; also a member of the Board of Directors of Pharmacia Corporation.
  • George Poste, D.V.M., Ph.D. - Chief Executive of Health Technology Networks, a consulting group specializing in the application of genomics technologies and computing in healthcare.
  • William U. Parfet - Chairman of MPI Research, LLC; also a member of the Board of Directors of Pharmacia Corporation.
  • Robert J. Stevens - President and CEO of Lockheed Martin Corporation


Monsanto Key Officers & Executives:

  • Frank V. AtLee III - Chairman of the Board
  • Hugh Grant - President and Chief Executive Officer (CEO)
  • Dr. Robert T. Fraley - Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer
  • Terrell K. Crews - Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
  • Charles W. Burson - Executive Vice President, Secretary and General Counsel
  • Carl M. Casale - Executive Vice President, North America Commercial
  • Donald K. Bandler - Senior Vice President, Government Affairs, formerly: Ambassador to the Republic of Cyprus, Special Assistant to the President, Senior Director for European Affairs at the National Security Council, Deputy Chief of Mission at the American Embassy in Paris, Counselor for Political and Legal Affairs at the American Embassy in Bonn, Director of the State Department Office of Israel and Arab-Israeli Affairs
  • Mark J. Leidy - Executive Vice President, Manufacturing
  • Gerald A. Steiner - Executive Vice President, Commercial Acceptance
  • Sarah S. Hull - Senior Vice President, Public Affairs
  • Cheryl P. Morley - Senior Vice President, Corporate Strategy
  • John Murabito - Senior Vice President, Human Resources
  • Richard B. Clark - Vice President and Controller
  • Janet M. Holloway - Vice President and Chief Information Officer
  • Robert A. Paley - Vice President and Treasurer


Monsanto UK Ltd. Locations:

Monsanto UK Ltd. (PBIC) The Maris Centre 45 Hauxton Rd. Trumpington Cambridge CB2 2LQ England tel. 01223 849200 or This is the registered office for Monsanto UK Ltd.

Monsanto UK Ltd. Tulip House, 70 Borough High St. London SE1 1XF England tel. 020-7864-9913 This is the company's government and public affairs office. This is a small office (maybe just a couple of desks) in a large office building housing a number of different companies.

Monsanto PLC PO Box 53 Lane End Road, High Wycombe Bucks. HP12 4HL. Monsanto PLC appears to be a remnant of old Monsanto / Pharmacia, the company has no employees and is registered at Pharmacia's UK head office. It has two directors: Philip Greenhalgh and JG Lee.


Monsanto UK Ltd. Directors:

  • Colin Elwell - Company Secretary and finance lead
  • Kenneth Baker - Head of external affairs (PR & lobbying)
  • Jeffrey Cox - General Manager
  • Marc De Smedt - Accountant
  • Luc Leunis - Chemical engineer
  • Kevin Walsh - Solicitor


Key Monsanto Employees for Commercialization of GMO Crops

Tony Coombes is Head of Public Affairs for Monsanto UK Ltd. Bernard Marantelli, who used to work in communications for Monsanto now works for Lexington Communications, who now run the Agricultural Biotechnology Council (ABC).

Monsanto is represented on the UK government's science review panel by Dr. Andrew Cockburn, Director of Scientific Affairs for Monsanto Europe/Africa. He's also a visiting lecturer at the University of Surrey (where he is also on the examining board), Brunel University and Kings College London (ibid.)

Monsanto is involved in several lobby groups, including: The Agricultural Biotechnology Council (ABC), and CropGen – it is unclear whether Monsanto is still a funder. The Crop Protection Association (formerly the British Agrochemicals Association), The European Crop Protection Association, The BSPB (British Society of Plant Breeders). SCIMAC (Supply Chain Initiative on Modified Agricultural Crops).

Monsanto is a member of at least two of the organisations which make up SCIMAC. EuropaBio, The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), Business Action for Sustainable Development (BASD).


The Commercialization of GMO Crops

Monsanto's involvement in GMO crops began in the early 1980's. Monsanto has been by far the most prominent corporation promoting the introduction of biotechnology in agriculture, and it is the world leader in this field. Monsanto was the first major agrochemical and pharmaceutical company to pursue the ‘life sciences' concept. During the 1990s it shed many of its chemical concerns and embarked on a spending spree investing heavily in biotechnology research, and acquiring seed companies worldwide.

In the late 1990s Monsanto was the first company to widely market first-generation GMO crops. This was accompanied by an aggressive public relations campaign aimed at persuading a concerned public that GMO crops were a safe and desirable innovation. The campaign backfired, resulting in Monsanto becoming the primary focus of a rapidly-growing global resistance to GMO crops - to a large extent drawing attention away from the likes of Bayer CropScience (formerly AgrEvo and Aventis CropScience) and Syngenta (Novartis / AstraZeneca) who were quietly getting on with introducing similar products.

The focus of Monsanto's work has been the development of herbicide-tolerant crops (RoundUp Ready crops tolerant of Monsanto's own glyphosate herbicide), and insect-resistant crops (BT, Bollgard, Newleaf, and Yieldgard crops). Monsanto's GMO crops were first grown commercially in the US in 1995. These traits have been genetically engineered into commodity crops such as soybeans (soya), corn (maize), canola (oilseed rape), and cotton.

1998: In the UK, Monsanto purchased the seed company Plant Breeding International (PBI) Cambridge, which it then merged with its existing UK agri-chemicals and GMO research businesses to form Monsanto UK Ltd. Monsanto UK has carried out field trials of glyphosate-tolerant sugar / fodder beet, glyphosate-tolerant oilseed rape, and glyphosate-tolerant and male sterility / fertility restorer oilseed rape.

The infamous agrochemical and biotechnology division, still known as Monsanto, was spun off as a nominally separate company with Pharmacia originally retaining an 85% share. Monsanto Company became completely separate and independent from Pharmacia on August 13, 2002, when Pharmacia distributed its remaining Monsanto shares to Pharmacia's stockholders. Also in 2002, Monsanto and DuPont reached an agreement to drop a raft of lawsuits against one another and to share patented crop biotechnology traits. This move may be seen as a pseudo-merger for companies which are too large to be permitted to merge. Monsanto as it now stands is a smaller company than that which first gained public notoriety in the mid-1990s. In 1996 its sales were $6,348m, rising to $8,648 in 1998, but dropping to $5,462m in 2001.

Monsanto has the largest share of the global GMO crops market. In 2001 its crops accounted for 91% of the total area of GMO crops planted worldwide. All is not going well for Monsanto, its share price plummeted in the second half of 2002 following its sell off by former parent company Pharmacia and this was compounded by the departure of its CEO at the end of 2002. In 2002 Monsanto entered into an important agreement with DuPont. As a result of this agreement both companies agreed to drop a number of outstanding patent disputes and to share their patented GMO crops technologies. Some commentators see this ‘agreement' as constituting a merger by stealth of the two companies' GMO crops monopolies.

Monsanto is one of the big three companies looking to commercialize GMO crops in the UK in the near future. Monsanto has a relatively small stake in the commercialisation of the first round of GMO crops in the UK. It has two varieties of GMO sugar beet (banned in the USA in 2010), developed in conjunction with Syngenta, which are awaiting approval for the UK national seed list. Monsanto has conducted field trials of GMO crops in the UK since the mid 1990s and its crops were used in the farm scale trials. Monsanto attracted much of the initial public outrage against GMO crops in the UK, and has therefore kept a low public profile over recent years.

GMO crops are vital to Monsanto's future and it has a strong interest in seeing them grown in the UK and Europe. It is heavily involved with a number of industry joint initiatives such as SCIMAC, ABC and CropGen designed to influence both the public and government on the issue of GMO crops. Monsanto is helping to flood Europe with new GMO applications, putting pressure on the EU to drop the moratorium.

Monsanto is involved in several lobby groups, including: The Agricultural Biotechnology Council (ABC), and CropGen – it is unclear whether Monsanto is still a funder. The Crop Protection Association (formerly the British Agrochemicals Association), The European Crop Protection Association, The BSPB (British Society of Plant Breeders). SCIMAC (Supply Chain Initiative on Modified Agricultural Crops).


Current Situation with Monsanto's GMO Crops

Monsanto is a world leader in GMO crops. Monsanto products accounted for over 90% of all GMO crops grown worldwide in 2002. Monsanto's current biotechnology products include herbicide-tolerant and insect-protected crops such as YieldGard corn, Roundup Ready corn, Roundup Ready soybeans, Bollgard cotton, Roundup Ready cotton, and Roundup Ready canola (rapeseed). Monsanto GMO crops are grown principally in the USA (soy, corn, cotton, canola), Argentina (soy) and Canada (canola, corn).

List of Monsanto's commercialized GMO varieties worldwide

According to the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (an industry body), in 2002 global biotech acreage reached 145 million acres. Over 90% of these are crops carrying Monsanto traits. Closer inspection reveals that 99% of these crops are being grown in just four countries, and that expansion into new countries is not taking place very rapidly.

India gave its approval in mid-2002 for the growing of insect-resistant BT cotton. However, results from the first harvest were not good, with 10,000s of farmers committing suicide, complaining of lower yields and insect attacks. According to the ISAAA, Honduras and Columbia grew GMO crops for the first time in 2002. In Australia both RoundUp Ready and insect-resistant BT cotton have been commercialized. In 2001, South African officials approved the commercial use of Roundup Ready soybeans, allowing the domestic production of the country's first commercial biotech food crop. Other non-food crops which had already been approved were insect-protected corn used for animal feed, Roundup Ready cotton and Bollgard cotton. Officials in Indonesia approved Bollgard insect-resistant cotton for commercial planting in 2001. In the Philippines, the government approved YieldGard Corn Borer insect-resistant corn for commercial growing in December 2002.


Monsanto's GMO Crop "Field Trials"

UK Field Trials: Commercialisation of GMO Crops in the UK

In the UK Monsanto have conducted field trials of sugar and fodder beet, corn and canola, all of which haave been modified for herbicide-tolerance (RoundUp Ready). A number of other companies including Advanta (Sharpes International Seeds), Bayer CropScience (AgrEvo), Danisco, Maribo, Nickerson, Pioneer Genetique and Syngenta (Novartis / Hilleshog) have conducted field trials using Monsanto's RoundUp Ready technology, as have research institutes IACR Brooms Barn and Imperial College London.

Monsanto's plans in the UK have been dramatically scaled down during recent years. Of 17 Monsanto-related products submitted for National Seed Listing trials in the UK, only 2 are current (see section on #77 sugar beet) below, and have completed their NSL trials, and the rest have been withdrawn. Monsanto-related products are not just those for which Monsanto is the applicant for field-testing or for National Seed Listing, but also those applied for by other companies using Monsanto's technology in their products. The withdrawn products were fodder beet, spring canola, and winter canola.


EU Field Trials: GMO Crops in the European Union

Elsewhere in the EU, Monsanto has also been running field trials as follows: Field Trials of the following crops have been carried out under the Monsanto, Asgrow and Dekalb names: Roundup-tolerant cotton; Bt. insect resistant cotton; Bt. insect resistant + Roundup tolerant cotton, Roundup-tolerant corn; Bt insect-resistant corn; Bt insect-resistant + Roundup tolerant corn; Glufosinate ammonium (Liberty)-tolerant corn; Bt. insect resistant + glufosinate ammonium (Liberty)-tolerant + insect resistant corn; Roundup-tolerant canola; Roundup-tolerant + male sterility/fertility restorer system canola, Roundup-tolerant soybean, Roundup-tolerant sugar beet / fodder beet, Cucumber mosaic virus resistant tomato, Fusarium fungus-resistant wheat, Watermelon mosaic virus-resistant, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus-resistant squash.

These were carried out in: Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Great Britain, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden (An overview of Monsanto's EU and UK field trials can be found by doing a company search for Monsanto, on the Genewatch UK online database). More detailed information on Monsanto's UK GM crop field trials can be found online on the DEFRA website. Further information on its EU GM crop trials can be found online at the Robert Koch Institute and the European Union Joint Research Centre.


EU Marketing Consents for GMO Field Trials in Europe

During early 2003 there has been a spate of applications for EU consent by biotech companies including Monsanto. As of July 2003, the only applications by Monsanto for cultivation within the EU are for the #77, A5/15 and H7-1 beets, as well as applications to grow RoundUp Ready cotton in Spain and Greece. In addition there are applications to import (but not cultivate) GT73 RoundUp Ready canola (mentioned above); NK603 RoundUp Ready corn; NK603 x MON810 RoundUp Ready and insect resistant corn; GA21 x MON810 insect resistant and RoundUp Ready corn, GA21 RoundUp Ready corn and MON863 / MON863 x MON810 insect resistant corn. MON810 corn (maize) is BANNED in Germany!


Central Europe and Eastern Europe Field Trials

Monsanto has also been active in central and eastern Europe. Romania is the only country which allows commercial growing of GMOs, but the weak regulatory systems in CEE countries make it difficult to track releases. In 1999 Romania grew 2000 hectares of herbicide-tolerant soybeans and 1000 hectares of virus or insect-resistant potatoes, of which at least the soybeans were probably Monsanto products. (DG Agri: Economic impacts of genetically modified crops on the agri-food sector. Working document of DG Agri, 2000). Monsanto field trials have taken place in Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Ukraine, and have involved RoundUp Ready-tolerant corn, RoundUp Ready-tolerant sugar beet, Bt insect-resistant corn , Bt insect-resistant potatoes, and Dekalb RoundUp Ready-tolerant corn.


Future GMO Crops

Monsanto's strategy is based around genetically modifying SUBSIDIZED commodity crops, and refining technologies which it already has commercialized. Monsanto is continuing to develop genetically modified traits that can be stacked in a single seed product, along with Roundup Ready tolerance to provide continuing sales for the herbicide.

The most important new product Monsanto is trying to introduce is RoundUp Ready wheat. This has caused an unexpected level of debate in the USA, generally because it is the first major GM crop which would be used predominantly for products to be consumed by humans rather than as animal feed. Wheat is also a vital export crop for the USA, which currently holds 26-28% of the world market share. The EU was the fourth largest importer of U.S. wheat overall in 2001, and although this position may diminish due to new EU rules on imports, it would nevertheless be extremely serious for the USA to virtually lose the EU market for its wheat, which is a real possibility if GMO wheat is commercialized.

As well as wheat, Monsanto is mainly concentrating on different traits in crops which it has already worked with. The majority of its field trials in the USA during the last two years have involved corn, altered to exhibit various traits.

Monsanto is also involved in a joint venture with Cargill Renessen, which is currently developing the following GMO crops: Improved-oil soybeans for feed, Three kinds of improved-energy corn (maize) for feed Healthier oil for food uses, Improved-protein soybeans for feed, High-starch/ethanol corn (maize), Processor Preferred soybeans.

Herbicide-tolerant (RoundUp Ready) varieties continue to play a large part in Monsanto's plans, showing that although these are extremely easy to reject due to their obvious benefits to corporations and lack of benefits to humans, Monsanto believes that there is still a large potential for their GMOs.


Monsanto's Commercialized GMO Crops:

Monsanto/Syngenta RoundUp tolerant
sugar beet line #77 (a.k.a. T9100152)

Monsanto and Syngenta have been working in conjunction on GMO herbicide tolerant (RoundUp Ready) sugar beet based on a transformation known as #77 or Event T9100152. #77 varieties have been trialed for inclusion on the UK National Seed List, and as part of the government sponsored farm scale trial program. Monsanto/Syngenta currently have two #77 sugar beet varieties known as Pacific and Sturgeon that have completed national seed listing trials. In early February 2003, Syngenta and Monsanto made a joint application for EU-wide marketing consent for all GMO sugar beet varieties based on #77/Event T9100152. If the application is successful Monsanto & Syngenta will have removed one of the final obstacles that stands between it and the commercial growing of its first GMO crop in the UK. In spring 2003 Syngenta planted a number of research and development trials of #77 sugar beet varieties, which further underlies its intention to commercialise this crop line. In March 2003, a spokesperson for Syngenta Seeds said that its GMO herbicide tollerant sugar beet was unlikely to be available to farmers until 2008 at the earliest. The next few years will be used to develop new varieties based on the #77 event.

A5/15 fodder beet

Monsanto has developed A5/15 GMO herbicide tolerant (RoundUp Ready) fodder beet in conjunction with two other companies. Monsanto owns the RoundUp Ready trait, DLF Trifolium A/S developed line A5/15 and Danisco Seed are the plant breeder, seed producer, and are in charge of seed processing and pelleting. A5/15 has been grown as part of the UK farm scale trials. There are currently no A5/15 varieties with applications open for UK national seed listing. Monsanto along with Danisco and DLF Trifolium, has applied for European Union Part C consent to cultivate this line. It would still need either National Seed Listing or European Common Catalogue listing to be sold commercially to farmers in the UK.


More Monsanto GMO crops:

canola line GT73 (a.k.a RT73)

The technology for this canola crop line was developed by Monsanto but has been trialed by Monsanto, Pioneer, and Advanta. Advanta still has a consent to field trial this line until 2006 but has not used it in recent years. GT73 is also part of the NIAB (National Institute for Agricultural Botany) BRIGHT (Botanical and Rotational Implications of Genetically Modified Herbicide Tolerant Crops) trials, which are intended to make recommendations for the management of herbicide-tolerant crops. Monsanto has recently applied for a consent to import and use this line in the EU, but NOT to cultivate it.

Monsanto subsidiary Calgene has developed an canola line called Transformation Event 23, which is being experimented with by the Scottish Agricultural College, but is a long way from commercialisation. Monsanto and KWS Saat of Germany have made a Part C application to the EU to cultivate H7-1 RoundUp Ready beet. If it is accepted, this would mean that it could be grown anywhere in the EU but that it would still need National Seed Listing or to be added to the European Common Catalogue in order to be sold commercially to farmers. In addition it would still need Novel Food consent before it could be sold for human consumption.

(source: Genewatch)


Monsanto's Seed Companies:

PBIC – Plant Breeding International Cambridge

Monsanto acquired Plant Breeding International of Cambridge (PBIC) from Unilever in 1998. PBIC produces new varieties of agricultural crops and markets them through a network of associated companies and agents worldwide. PBIC has worked on breeding programs including winter wheat, barley, canola and potatoes. The PBIC seeds business has now fully integrated with Monsanto's UK operations.

RoundUp Ready sugar and fodder beet are the only Monsanto related GM crops which may be commercialised in the UK in the near future. As Monsanto does not directly own UK seed companies working in this area they are developing these products with partner seed companies Syngenta, Danisco and DLF Trifolium (see above).

Monsanto also owns the seed companies Asgrow and DeKalb Genetics, both companies have carried out GM field trials in the EU.

Seed Industry Structure 1996-2008
Monsanto GMO Seed Companies


Monsanto's Dependance on GMOs

How important are GM crops to Monsanto?

Monsanto's current financial situation will make them fight all the harder to get GMO crops commercialized worldwide in order to make a return on its huge research and development budget, which totalled $560 million in 2001.

Monsanto is becoming increasingly dependent on GMO crops. Monsanto's key product RoundUp has gone off-patent, and therefore Monsanto's share of the glyphosate market has declined, with rivals Syngenta picking up 7-10% of the glyphosate market by the end of 2002 according to Monsanto CEO Hugh Grant. RoundUp Ready crops help to ensure a continuing market for Monsanto's RoundUp as opposed to generic formulations of glyphosate. Hugh Grant and Chairman Frank AtLee have said that in 2003, they expect that sales of seeds and genetically modified trait licences - will surpass sales of Roundup which have supported Monsanto for years.

Monsanto has been repeatedly spun off so that Monsanto is now dependent on a limited range of agricultural products, of which GMO crops play an increasing role. Therefore it will fight all the harder to get these products introduced.


Monsanto's Global Strategy

Monsanto's recently departed CEO Hendrik Verfaillie, was kind enough to lay out his three wishes for us in 2001: 'The first is (approval for) Round-Up Ready soybeans in Brazil. The second is making progress in Europe - specifically around Round-Up Ready corn (maize). Number three is BT cotton in India".

His third wish has already come true - as noted above, the Indian government approved the growing of BT insect-resistant cotton in mid-2002. This may have opened the door for other crops, depending on how far news of BT cotton's failures (100,000s of farmer suicides) travels, since although cotton is not perceived as a food crop, its oil is used for human consumption (INGREDIENTS: cottonseed oil).

Brazil has proved to be an unexpected sticking point for Monsanto. The Brazilian government had shown itself generally to be pro-GMO, and the over-zealous former agriculture minister Pratini de Moraes had twice tried to approve commercialization of RoundUp Ready soy beans. As part of its global strategy, Monsanto had bought up seed companies in Brazil and was poised to dominate bio-tech farming. However, approval has been held up in the courts by Greenpeace and the Brazilian Institute for Consumer Defence (IDEC). In October 2002, Brazilian people elected a new President, Luis Inácio Lula da Silva (Lula), who is thought likely to uphold the current ban on growing GMO crops. Only time will tell if he is able to withstand the pressure from Monsanto.

Europe is nearly self-sufficient in corn, but in the medium term could in theory provide an important market for Monsanto's GMO varieties. However, at the moment Monsanto is only applying for EU approval to import GMO corn varieties grown elsewhere in the world. It seems that European non-acceptance of certain GMO corn varieties may be holding up Monsanto’s plans in Argentina. 92% of EU corn imports of in 2002 came from Argentina. Whilst Argentina does grow some GMO corn varieties, it is only those varieties that have been approved for import into the EU.

Roundup Ready corn was introduced in the US in 1998 but has yet to receive approval for use in Argentina. The variety is NOT approved for sale in Europe where Argentina has two big clients: Spain and Portugal. In the past 4 years, 6 different Argentine agriculture secretaries have upheld the decision to NOT approve the herbicide resistant corn in order to protect sales of 800,000 tons of corn per year to Spain and 400,000 tons of corn to Portugal. There is currently a Part C consent application for RoundUp ready corn NK603 to be imported into the EU and if this is successful Argentina’s policy on RoundUp Ready corn may well change.

In the UK after Monsanto's initial PR blunder in 1998, which backfired spectacularly, Monsanto has managed to keep a fairly low public profile.


Monsanto's GMO's in the EU & UK

How important is the UK / EU in Monsanto's global strategy?

The EU’s importance in the short term is primarily as an importer of Monsanto’s GMO crops. European objections to GMO crops have slowed down Monsanto’s expansion in commodity-exporting countries such as Brazil and Argentina, as outlined above. The importance Monsanto attaches to the EU is underlined in the United States' recent threatened trade sanctions under WTO rules, which suggest that Monsanto and others are immensely bothered by Europe's reluctance to authorize the import of new GMO crops and to allow widespread commercial growing of GMO crops.

Likewise, Europeans are being blamed for brainwashing African governments into refusing to accept GMO food "aid" (biohazard contamination), showing how influential European fears are seen to be, and simultaneously insulting the analytical capabilities of African governments. However, Europe will also be seen as a market for growing GMO varieties, being a huge producer of agricultural produce. In 2001 the EU, as a whole, exported $57,805m of agricultural produce to countries outside of its borders, second only to the USA which exported $70,017m.


Monsanto's Killer Pesticide DDT

Kybosh DDT Can
DDT (from its trivial name, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is one of the most well-known synthetic petrochemical (made from petroleum oil) pesticides. DDT is a chemical with a long, unique, and controversial history.

First synthesized in 1874, DDT's insecticidal properties were not discovered until 1939, and it was used with great success in the second half of World War II to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops. The Swiss chemist Paul Hermann Müller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1948 "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods." After the war, DDT was made available for use as an agricultural insecticide, and soon its production and use skyrocketed.

In 1962, Silent Spring by American biologist Rachel Carson was published. The book catalogued the environmental impacts of the indiscriminate spraying of DDT in the US and questioned the logic of releasing large amounts of chemicals into the environment without fully understanding their effects on ecology or human health. The book suggested that DDT and other pesticides may cause cancer and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife, particularly birds. Its publication was one of the signature events in the birth of the environmental movement, and resulted in a large public outcry that eventually led to DDT being banned in the US in 1972. DDT was subsequently banned for agricultural use worldwide under the Stockholm Convention, but its limited use in disease vector control continues to this day and remains controversial.

Along with the passage of the Endangered Species Act, the US ban on DDT is cited by scientists as a major factor in the comeback of the bald eagle, the national bird of the United States, from near-extinction in the contiguous US.

DDT Bird Eggs Shell Thinning Effects on wildlife and eggshell thinning

DDT is toxic to a wide range of animals in addition to insects, including marine animals such as crayfish, daphnids, sea shrimp and many species of fish. It is less toxic to mammals, but may be moderately toxic to some amphibian species, especially in the larval stage. Most famously, it is a reproductive toxicant for certain birds species, and it is a major reason for the decline of the bald eagle, brown pelican peregrine falcon, and osprey. Birds of prey, waterfowl, and song birds are more susceptible to eggshell thinning than chickens and related species, and DDE appears to be more potent than DDT. Even in 2010, more than 40 years after the U.S. ban, California condors which feed on sea lions at Big Sur which in turn feed in the Palos Verdes Shelf area of the Montrose Chemical Superfund site seemed to be having continued thin-shell problems. Scientists with the Ventana Wildlife Society and others are intensifying studies and remediations of the condors' problems.

Effects on human health

Potential mechanisms of action on humans are genotoxicity and endocrine disruption. DDT may be directly genotoxic, but may also induce enzymes to produce other genotoxic intermediates and DNA adducts. It is an endocrine disruptor; The DDT metabolite DDE acts as an antiandrogen (but not as an estrogen). p,p'-DDT, DDT's main component, has little or no androgenic or estrogenic activity. Minor component o,p'-DDT has weak estrogenic activity.

Developmental and reproductive toxicity

DDT and DDE, like other organochlorines, have been shown to have xenoestrogenic activity, meaning they are chemically similar enough to estrogens to trigger hormonal responses in animals. This endocrine disrupting activity has been observed in mice and rat toxicological studies, and available epidemiological evidence indicates that these effects may be occurring in humans as a result of DDT exposure. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states that DDT exposure damages the reproductive system and reduces reproductive success.

Spraying DDT from Trucks Spraying Children with DDT PESTICIDE


Monsanto Made Fake Vanilla for Coca-Cola

In 1905, Monsanto manufactured caffeine & vanillin (in addition to carcinogenic saccharine) for Coca-Cola. Synthetic vanillin, instead of natural vanilla extract, is sometimes used as a flavoring agent in foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. Vanillin as well as ethylvanillin is used by the food industry. The ethyl is more expensive but has a stronger note. It differs from vanillin by having an ethoxy group (–O–CH2CH3) instead of a methoxy group (–O–CH3).

Coca-ColaVanillin is a phenolic aldehyde, an organic compound with the molecular formula C8H8O3. Its functional groups include aldehyde, ether, and phenol. Vanillin is ONLY the primary component of the extract of the vanilla bean. It is also found in roasted coffee and the Chinese red pine.

Natural "vanilla extract" is a mixture of several hundred different compounds in addition to vanillin. Artificial vanilla flavoring is a solution of pure vanillin, usually of synthetic origin. Because of the scarcity and expense of natural vanilla extract, there has long been interest in the synthetic preparation of its predominant component. The first commercial synthesis of vanillin began with the more readily available natural compound eugenol. Today, artificial vanillin is made from either guaiacol or from lignin, a constituent of wood which is a byproduct of the pulp industry (see William Randolph HEARST magazines and Rockefeller Petroleum monopoly for more information on SYNTHETIC PETROCHEMICALS).

Lignin-based artificial vanilla flavoring is alleged to have a richer flavor profile than oil-based flavoring; the difference is due to the presence of acetovanillone in the lignin-derived product, an impurity not found in vanillin synthesized from guaiacol.

Vanillin Crystals Bulk Vanillin Powder Vanillin Crystal Product


Monsanto Invented Fake Grass in 1965

AstroTurf is a brand of artificial turf. Although the term is a registered trademark, it is sometimes used as a generic description of any kind of artificial turf. The original AstroTurf product was a short pile synthetic turf while the current products incorporate modern features such as antimicrobial protection, rubber infill, backing systems and nylon (Dupont) yarn fibers and plastic. The prime reason to incorporate AstroTurf on game fields was to reduce the cost of laying natural turf.

Monsanto AstroturfAstroTurf was co-invented in 1965 by Donald L. Elbert, James M. Faria, and Robert T. Wright, employees of Monsanto Company. AstroTurf was patented in 1967 and originally sold under the name "Chemgrass". It was renamed AstroTurf by Company employee John A. Wortmann after its first well-publicized use at the Houston Astrodome stadium in 1966.

In 1987 Monsanto consolidated its AstroTurf management, marketing, and technical activities in Dalton, Georgia, as AstroTurf Industries, Inc. In 1988 Balsam AG purchased all the capital stock of AstroTurf Industries, Inc. In 1994 Southwest Recreational Industries, Inc. (SWRI) acquired the AstroTurf brand. In 1996 SWRI was acquired by American Sports Products Group Inc. (ASPG). In 2001, SWRI launched a turf system called NexTurf. In 2003 SWRI changed its name to SRI Sports and one year later filed for bankruptcy and the parent company, ASPG, retained the AstroTurf rights. In 2005 Textile Management and Associates (TMA) acquired the AstroTurf assets and intellectual property from ASPG and began marketing the AstroTurf brand under the company AstroTurf, LLC. In 2006 GeneralSports Venue (GSV) became TMA’s marketing partner for the AstroTurf brand for the American market. AstroTurf, LLC handles the marketing of AstroTurf in the rest of the world.



Dark History of the Evil Monsanto Corporation

click here for a: BRIEF Timeline of Monsanto's History

Apologies, I wanted to move my research about The Dark History of Monsanto because the article has become too long for this page... so I created a new page for it. I am a professional copy writer and I can tell that my sources have been censored many times already. This web page has already been shared about 4000x by people on facebook. Please help protect children by sharing the NEW Monsanto HISTORY page:


Below is a BRIEF TIMELINE of the Monsanto petrochemical FOOD monopoly.

Click here to read the FULL HISTORY of Monsanto (1901-2013)

Diet Dr. Pepper Saccharine CAUSES Cancer in laboratory animals

1901: Monsanto was founded by John Francis Queeny, a 30-year veteran of the pharmaceutical industry. Queeny funded the start-up with capital from Coca-Cola (saccharin). Queeny's father in law was Emmanuel Mendes de Monsanto, wealthy financier of a sugar company active in Vieques, Puerto Rico and based in St. Thomas in the Danish West Indies.

Sweet 'N Low1902: Monsanto manufactures Saccharin for Coca-Cola.

1905: Monsanto manufactures caffeine & vanillin for Coca-Cola.

1917: Monsanto manufactures aspirin.

1919: Monsanto manufactures salicylic acid, and later rubber.

1920s: Monsanto manufactures industrial chemicals like sulfuric acid.

1929: Monsanto began production of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls).

1935: Monsanto goes into the soap and detergents industry, starts producing phosphorus.

1938: Monsanto goes into the plastic business making plastic from petroleum fossil fuels.

1939-1945: Monsanto conducts research on uranium for the Manhattan Project, the first atomic bomb. and the development of the first nuclear weapons.

1940s: Monsanto produces plastics and synthetic fabrics like polystyrene (food packaging), ranked 5th in the EPA's 1980s listing of chemicals whose production generates the most total hazardous waste.

1941: Monsanto manufactures phosphates and inorganic chemicals like styrene monomer.

Monsanto Pirates1944: Monsanto began manufacturing DDT.

1945: Monsanto began polluting the Earth with dioxin.

1950: Monsanto manufactures urethane foam.

1954: Monsanto partnered with Bayer to form Mobay.

1955: Monsanto manufactures petroleum-based fertilizer.

1959: Monsanto begins producing ultra-pure silicon in a future Superfund site.

1964: Monsanto introduced "biodegradable" detergents.

1965: AstroTurf (fake grass) was invented by employees of Monsanto Company and sold as "Chemgrass".

agent orange1967: Monsanto entered into a joint venture with IG Farben.

1968: Monsanto became the first organization to mass-produce LEDs, using gallium arsenide phosphide.

1969: Monsanto produces Lasso herbicide, better known as Agent Orange, which contaminated more than 3,000,000 civilians and servicemen, caused 400,000 vietnamese deaths & disabilities, plus 500,000 children born with birth defects, leading to calls for Monsanto to be prosecuted for war crimes.

Monsanto ROundup Herbicide KILLS ALL ORGANICS!1972: The use of DDT was banned by U.S. Congress.

1973: Monsanto developed and patented the glyphosate molecule in the 1970s. Monsanto began manufacturing the herbicide Roundup, which has been marketed as a "safe", even though its key ingredient, glyphosate, is a highly toxic poison for animals and humans.

1976: Monsanto produces Cycle-Safe, the world's first plastic soft-drink bottle. The bottle, suspected of posing a cancer risk, is banned the following year by the Food and Drug Administration.

January 10, 1977: The FDA formally requests the U.S. Attorney's office to begin grand jury proceedings to investigate whether indictments should be filed against Searle for knowingly misrepresenting findings and "concealing material facts and making false statements" in aspartame safety tests. This is the first time in the FDA's history that they request a criminal investigation of a manufacturer.

Equal aspartame sweetner1977: G. D. Searle hires prominent Washington insider Donald Rumsfeld as the new CEO to try to turn the beleaguered company around. A former Member of Congress and Secretary of Defense in the Ford Administration, Rumsfeld brings in several of his Washington cronies as top management. Donald Rumsfeld followed Searle as CEO, and then as President of Searle from 1977-1985.

December 8, 1977: U.S. Attorney Skinner's withdrawal and resignation stalls the Searle grand jury investigation for so long that the statue of limitations on the aspartame charges runs out. The grand jury investigation is dropped. (borderline treason)

1980: September 30, FDA Board of Inquiry comprised of 3 independent scientists, confirmed that aspartame "might induce brain tumors". The Public Board of Inquiry concludes NutraSweet should not be approved pending further investigations of brain tumors in animals. The board states it "has NOT been presented with proof of reasonable certainty that aspartame is safe for use as a food additive." The FDA had actually banned aspartame based on this finding, only to have Searle Chairman Donald Rumsfeld (Ford's Secretary of Defense 1975-1977, Bush's Secretary of Defense 2001-2006) vow to "call in his markers," to get it approved in 1981.

1982: Monsanto GMO scientists genetically modify a plant cell for the first time!

1983: Diet Coke was sweetened with aspartame.

Aspartame Pop

The NutraSweet Company
1985: Monsanto purchased G.D. Searle, the chemical company that held the patent to aspartame, the active ingredient in NutraSweet. The aspartame business became a separate Monsanto subsidiary, the NutraSweet Company. Donald Rumsfeld joins Monsanto.

1987: Monsanto conducted the first field tests of genetically engineered (GMO) crops.

1988: A federal jury finds Monsanto Co.'s subsidiary, G.D. Searle & Co., negligent in testing and marketing of its Copper 7 intrauterine birth control device (IUD). The verdict followed the unsealing of internal documents regarding safety concerns about the IUD used by nearly 10 million women between 1974-1986.

NO rBSTMonsanto Pus Milk1990: EPA chemists allege fraud in Monsanto's 1979 dioxin study about cancer risks.

1993: By April, the Department of Veterans Affairs had only compensated 486 victims, although it had received disability **CLAIMS** from 39,419 veteran soldiers who had been exposed to monsanto's Agent Orange while serving in Vietnam.

1994: Monsanto's first biotech product is GMO cattle drug, bovine growth hormone - Posilac bovine somatropin (rBST/rBGH).

Roundup Ready CanolaRoundup Ready Soybeans1995: Roundup Ready canola (rapeseed) which is tolerant to Monsanto's Roundup herbicide was first introduced to Canada.

1995: Monsanto is sued after allegedly supplying radioactive material for a controversial study which involved feeding radioactive iron to 829 pregnant women.

1996: Monsanto introduces its first biotech crop, Roundup Ready soybeans.

1997: Monsanto introduces new GMO canola (rapeseed), GMO cotton and GMO corn (maize), and buys foundation seed companies. The New York State Attorney General forced Monsanto to stop claiming that Roundup is "biodegradable" and "environmentally friendly".

Roundup Ready CanolaRoundup Ready Canola1998: Monsanto introduces Roundup Ready corn (maize).

1999: After international criticism, Monsanto agrees not to [PUBLICLY] commercialize "Terminator" seeds.

2000: Since the inception of Plan Colombia, the US has spent hundreds of millions of dollars in funding aerial sprayings of Monsanto's Roundup herbicides in Colombia. The Roundup is often applied in concentrations 26x higher than what is recommended for agricultural use. Additionally, it contains at least one surfactant, Cosmo-Flux 411f, whose ingredients are a trade secret, has never been approved for use in the US, and which quadruples the biological action of the herbicide. Not surprisingly, numerous human health impacts have been recorded in the areas affected by the sprayings, including respiratory, gastrointestinal and skin problems, and even death, especially in children. Additionally, fish and animals will show up dead in the hours and days subsequent to the herbicide sprayings.

Terminator Seeds2004: Monsanto forms American Seeds Inc holding company for corn and soybean seed deals and begins brand acquisitions.

2004-2005: Monsanto filed lawsuits against many farmers in Canada and the U.S. on the grounds of patent infringement, specifically the farmers' sale of seed containing Monsanto's patented genes. In some cases, farmers claimed the seed was unknowingly sown by wind carrying the seeds from neighboring crops, a claim rejected in Monsanto Canada Inc. v. Schmeiser. These instances began in the mid to late 1990s, with one of the most significant cases being decided in Monsanto's favor by the Canadian Supreme Court. By a 5-4 vote in late May 2004, that court ruled that "by cultivating a plant containing the patented gene and composed of the patented cells without license, the appellants (canola farmer Percy Schmeiser) deprived the respondents of the full enjoyment of the patent." With this ruling, the Canadian courts followed the U.S. Supreme Court in its decision on patent issues involving plants and genes.

2005: Monsanto patents (GMO) pigs.Roundup Ready crops create "super weeds".

New York Times Superweeds Map

2006: the Public Patent Foundation filed requests with the United States Patent and Trademark Office to revoke 4 patents that Monsanto has used in patent lawsuits against farmers. In the first round of reexamination, claims in all 4 patents were rejected by the Patent Office in 4 separate rulings dating from February through July 2007. Monsanto has since filed responses in the reexaminations.

Genuity2007: Monsanto's GMO seeds are 90% of the total world area devoted to GMO seeds.

2008: Monsanto sells Posilac rBST/rBGH milk business to Eli Lilly (polio vaccine manufacturer).

2009: Monsanto posts record net sales of $11.7 billion and net income of $2.1 billion for fiscal 2009.

2010: Monsanto introduces their new brand Genuity. Farmers in South Africa report 80% of the GMO corn was SEEDLESS at harvest time!

2011: Monsanto posts net income of $1 billion for fiscal 2010. 50% loss.


Above is only a BRIEF HISTORY of the Monsanto fossil-fuel FOOD monopoly...

Click here to read Monsanto's FULL HISTORY (1901-2013)

How Aspartame Became Legal - The Timeline


Poisoned by Monsanto GMO Food



Monsanto Informational Resources:

The following publications and websites are interesting independent sources of information on Monsanto.

The Truth About Monsanto

Monsanto News Watchdog

Top 10 Facts About Monsanto

Monsanto's Dark History 1901-2013

Monsanto Monitor

The Ecologist Monsanto Edition

Monsanto and genetic engineering: Risks for investors
by Innovest Strategic Value Advisors / Greenpeace April 2003

An excellent briefing on the old pre-Pharmacia merger with Monsanto compiled by ASeed Europe

Books About Monsanto:

Seeds of Deception by Jeffrey M. Smith

Seeds of Destruction by F. WIlliam Engdahl

Food, Inc. by Peter Pringle (2003)

Fatal Harvest by Andrew Kimbrell

Hungry Corporations by Helena Paul & Ricarda Steinbrecher.

Seeds of Destruction

Monsanto's Dark History | 10 Facts You Should Know About Monsanto
GMO Foods | Monsanto's rBST/rBGH Pus Milk | Monsanto's Aspartame
Documentary Movies About Monsanto | Books About Monsanto

please ask if you want more resources...



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